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A blood test for cancer can now show where in the body a tumour is growing, without the need for a painful biopsy.一种癌症的血液检测方法可以测得肿瘤在体内生长的方位,而不必须展开活的组织检测。Liquid biopsies are hoped to revolutionise cancer treatment, by identifying people with slow-growing tumours and those most in danger. They work by detecting the DNA released by dying tumour cells.人们期望通过“血液前列腺”找到人体内的慢性肿瘤和最危险性的肿瘤,从而彻底改变癌症的化疗方式。其原理是检测丧生肿瘤细胞获释的DNA。


Now, for the first time, US scientists can also pinpoint the part of the body affected.现在,美国科学家还首次构建精准定位患病的部位。That is because the normal cells killed off by cancer also release DNA into the bloodstream, which has its own unique signature.这是因为被癌症杀掉的长时间细胞也不会将DNA获释到血液中,这些DNA有其独有的特征。A team from the University of California San Diego have found the DNA patterns for 10 different types of tissue, including from the liver, lung and kidneys.加利福尼亚大学圣地亚哥分校的一个研究小组找到了肝、肺、肾等10种有所不同人体的组织的DNA模式。

It means cancer patients who have symptoms shared across different types of cancer, such as bloating or sudden weight loss, could in future be diagnosed quickly and easily without needing a biopsy to remove part of an organ for testing.这意味著未来人们可以非常简单较慢发病经常出现便秘、体重锐减等癌症一般症状的病患,而需要手术器官的一部分用来展开活的组织检测。Dr Catherine Pickworth, Cancer Research UKs science information officer, said: A biopsy can be invasive and unpleasant to go through, while any operation with an anaesthetic is risky.英国癌症研究所科学信息主任凯瑟琳?皮克沃思博士称之为:“动手术展开活的组织检测是有创的,而任何用于麻醉剂的手术都是有风险的。This is potentially safer if it can be effective, which is why people are focusing on liquid biopsies.如果血液检测有效地,那么这种方法不会更加安全性,这也正是人们注目血液前列腺的原因。


Finding new ways to detect and treat cancer at an early stage is vital to help more people survive the disease. Looking for the DNA of cancer cells in the blood is an exciting idea, and this encouraging new approach might help reveal the location of tumours. 找寻在初期检测和化疗癌症的新方法对解救更好的癌症患者至关重要。找寻血液中的癌细胞DNA是一个激动人心的点子,而且这种新方法有可能有助说明了肿瘤的方位。”The US researchers, whose study is published in Nature Genetics, analysed samples of tumours and blood samples from cancer patients to find markers for different organs in the blood.美国研究人员分析了癌症患者的肿瘤样本和血液样本,从而找到血液中有所不同器官的标记。他们将研究成果公开发表在了《大自然遗传学》杂志上。

They created a DNA database for the liver, intestine, colon, lung, brain, kidney, pancreas, spleen, stomach and blood.研究人员建构了一个肝脏、肠道、结肠、肺、脑、肾、胰腺、脾、胃以及血液的DNA数据库。Now the bioengineers know the normal cells, killed off when tumour cells compete with them for space and nutrients, also release a DNA signature, called CpG methylation haplotypes.现在,这些生物工程师们找到在与肿瘤细胞争夺战空间及营养物质时被杀掉的长时间细胞也获释一种DNA信号,叫作CpG甲基化单体。They were able to test which organ they came from by checking their diagnoses back against the cancer patients.他们可以通过对比癌症患者之前的诊断检测出有这些细胞来自哪个器官。


The researchers screened blood samples from individuals with and without tumours, looking for signals of the cancer markers and the tissue-specific methylation patterns.研究人员通过检测患上癌症和身体健康的个体的血液样本,找寻肿瘤标志物的信号以及的组织特异的甲基化模式。The test works like a dual authentication process, with the combination of both signals required to assign a positive match.这个测试就看起来一个双重证书过程,两种信号的人组必须相反给定。


The author added: This a proof of concept. To move this research to the clinical stage, we need to work with oncologists to further optimise and refine this method.研究作者称之为:“这还是概念检验。要将该研究应用于临床,我们必须和肿瘤专家更进一步完备和优化这个方法。



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